10 archaeological finds
Many people think that all the main historical discoveries already made and all the treasures found. However, this is not so. Thousands of professional archaeologists and hundreds of thousands of enthusiasts continue in different parts of the world to dig and search.
Each year the magazine Archaeology sums up the year in archaeology, while drawing up the rating of outstanding discoveries that shed light on the ancient history of mankind. Scientists waited many surprises from different historical eras. By the way, discoveries in archaeology are not listed in order of importance and not in chronological order. So, here’s the top 10 for 2012.
1st place: the ship of Pharaoh
Egyptologist Jan Tristant of the University of Sydney studied the response francuzskoy archaeological expedition of Professor Pierre Monte, who in 1914 examined the tombs of the pharaohs near the town of Abu Ravache. Suddenly he noticed something strange: French archaeologist wrote that the tomb was a wooden floor. It seemed strange – because prior to that, in Egyptian tombs never vstrechalas wooden floors. He suggested that, under wooden beams is hiding something else. And sure enough– under the tomb was found an ancient burial ship, made in 2950 BC There were also found ceramic vessels with beer and bread – apparently, this was not an easy craft and grocery baggage that accompanied the Pharaoh to the realm of the dead.
2nd place: the Treasure of Kiryat
A real treasure of jewelry and coins were obnarujeny in the yard of an ordinary house in the town of Kiryat. Apparently, these coins belong to the time of Bar Kokhba revolt lasted from 132 to 135 C. E. It is the most ancient gold coins found in Israel.
3rd place: the Treasure-Alanskie mummy
Two mummies of men and women were found in an ancient mine near the Scottish town Treasure-Hallan back in 2001, but only this year, archaeologists who examined these skeletons, came to the conclusion that it is the oldest European mummy – to all appearances, these people died around 1300 BC – that is, about the same time as Tutankhamun. Archaeologists did not realize that the skeletons were originally mummies: their bodies were specially placed for a year in a peat bog for preservation. After that the bodies were apparently placed in a room (and after several hundred years they were buried, the reasons for this rite, it seems will remain unknown to us). Further study of the remains led to another amazing discovery: it turns out that the male skeleton is actually composed of bones from three individuals. Scientists today launched a study of the female skeleton, which, it seems, is also made up of remnants of various man – at least, established that the skull of the mummy 200 years older than the rest of the body.
4th place: the first pots from China
Until recently it was believed that the appearance of Potter’s wheel occurred about 10 thousand years ago – during the first Neolithic technological revolution. However, finding the pots in the cave located in the Jiangxi province in Southeast China, shows that this term need to increase at least two times – according to experts, these pots were made on a Potter’s wheel 19 thousand years ago.
5th place: ancient engraving vagina
This figure, according to French archeologists, female external genitals, no less than 37 thousand years. In the Chauvet cave was Parking the first CRO – magnon ancestors of modern man. And, as you can see, nothing human was alien to them.
6th place: Roman sandals
German archaeologists have found the remains of a Roman military camp near the town of Hermeskeil, near Trier. But more importantly, scientists have found the remains of 75 of sandals, used by the Roman legions – until now, scientists have found almost no army footwear.
7th place: cemetery of the victims of Huitzilopochtli
Templo Mayor (or Great Temple) was one of the main temples of the ancient Aztec capital Tenochtitlan, where today is Mexico city. In Nahuatl, the temple was called was Ueueteotul and was dedicated to two gods at the same time, God of war Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc – God of rain and agriculture. And now, this year they have excavated one of the tombs, where were buried the victims of bloody rituals: more than 1,000 bones of the hands and feet, 45 skulls and 250 jawbones. Interestingly, on top of this mess of bones lay a complete skeleton – the remains of a woman, which, apparently, was burnt at this place, after which the burial was covered.
8th place: the ancient poisons
French archaeologists who have studied Parking of Neanderthals in South Africa, found sticks and primitive spear heads, smeared with poison – apparently the oldest in the world the poison was prepared about 40 years ago tymac.
# 9: “first aid kit of a Neanderthal”
Archaeologist Karen hardy of the Catalan institution is prepared to make a radical shift in our view of the Neanderthals. Upon examining the remains of primitive people that inhabited Spain about 50 thousand years ago, a scientist noticed that your teeth are the remains of some food. Experts analyzed the remains and concluded that before the death of this Neanderthal chewed some medicinal plants – in particular, scientists have identified the remains of chamomile and yarrow. We can assume that this man had a supply of dried herbs, a kind of first aid kit “just in case”, and this radically changes our stereotypes about Neanderthals, as the humanoid apes, are not capable to cogitative activity.
10th place: mask of the Sun God
In the town of El Sots that in Guatemala, archaeologists during excavations of an ancient Maya pyramid El Diablo found a series of reliefs depicting the God of the Sun – all masks show different phases of motion of our star.