ANCIENT SETTLEMENTS ON THE TERRITORY OF MOSCOW
People settled in the territory, where later was built in Moscow in the Neolithic period. The first settlers appeared here in those days, when the glacier that covered earlier, most of Europe, began to take their positions, slowly retreating to the North. As it melts, leaving behind the Sands, swamps and huge boulders.
Archaeologists have discovered traces of settlements III Millennium BC near the village liyalovo, located in the vicinity of the Moscow river and Klyazma river at the location of today’s Shchukino (Kolomenskoye). In ancient times lived in these places tribes engaged in hunting and fishing. They used tools made of bone and stone, as evidenced by discovered in the excavations of the items. In everyday life, the villagers used burnt at the stake pottery decorated with various patterns.
People preferred to settle closer to the water, so light shelters were constructed on the shores of lakes and rivers. In the II Millennium BC (the bronze age) the territory of Moscow and Moscow region was inhabited by representatives of the fatyanovo culture. During excavations on the territory of Moscow and Moscow region (Tushino, Davydkovo, Sparrow hills and other regions)have been found in their burial grounds. In areas inhabited by these tribes, to this day, find of burial, which, as a rule, are located in the South-East of Moscow. In magelonidae carefully polished stone axes, which by their form remind of ancient rook, necklaces of bear teeth and bones, various jewelry made of bronze. For the first time a burial of this type found in s. Fatianovo, hence the name of the Fatyanovo culture. These people were breeding horses and cattle.
A fortified settlement surrounded by a moat and high earthen embankment (Val) appeared on the territory occupied by Moscow, in the early iron age. Today in the city found more than ten settlements, and this alone, is evidence that the concentration of settlers in this area was quite significant. The territory of ancient Moscow, the Moscow region and the Moscow region was covered with the fortified old town, which has a very modest-sized settlement surrounded by ramparts and moats and unfortified settlements. The shaft was located Tyn, representing a wooden fence. As a rule, the settlement was constructed on a hill located near the river or stream.
The inhabitants of the towns, with rare exceptions, engaged in farming, and only a very few have started to cultivate land with a hoe. A very significant place in the life of the people of that time, occupied and hunting. Marsh ore, which appeared on the surface of the earth, served as a source of necessary raw materials. Arrowheads, sickles, knives were made of iron. Clay was used for production of crucibles in which smelted metal and glassware. Women’s jewelry made of bonze and silver.
Settlements dyakowski culture, which include the above-mentioned settlement (V century BC to VII century ad), owe its name to the Dyakovo village (Kolomenskoye) near which were first discovered.
The first of these, representing a fortified settlement was called “devil’s ancient settlement”. It lies between the stream and the ravine on the right Bank of Moscow river. Reached us perfectly preserved ditch and rampart. In addition to the usual findings that are relevant to economic activity, it found products of an ancient art: made from bones, animal figures, bronze ornaments, figurines made of clay and the sculpture of the head of a wild boar. Dyakowski traces of culture found in the area of the Valdai hills of the Upper Volga and Volga-Oka interfluve. Archaeological monuments of that period found on the territory of Moscow itself, for example: at the Manege square and the Kremlin.
Settlers perfectly mastered the technology of processing of various materials (bone, wood, metal), had the idea of weaving and pottery production. A more complete idea about these found in places of residence subjects: clay weights “Dyakov type”, the clay dishes decorated with a pattern of jewelry from non-ferrous metal, etc. made of bone found usually in the early layers.
At the beginning of I Millennium BC. thanks to the development of metallurgy began the production of iron tools (sickles, knives, flints with steels, etc.). By that time, the residents of settlements established trade with the nomads, as evidenced by found in the field of excavation imported products: gold-plated glass beads, enamelled Roman brooch and so on. Their dwellings consisted, first, round semidugouts, then the ground buildings of rectangular shape. The population belonged to the adherents of the cult of the goddess of fertility and ancestor worship.
The Eastern part of the occupied “dyakivtsi” area was inhabited by ancestors of the Finno-Ugric tribes. The Western population is likely to be Baltic. Remarkably, the upper cultural layer of the settlements, belongs to the Slavs. Archaeological findings clearly confirm that the place where later was built Moscow, inhabited for 5 thousand years.