Archeology (from the Greek.archaios – ancient and logos – science ) – the science of antiquities . By definition, A.V. Artsikhovsky archaeology is history armed with a spade. the science that studies the historical past of mankind on the real historical remains buried in the ground. Interest in antiquities appeared in Russia in the early centuries of Russian history. In the churches . the cathedrals kept the relics associated with the memory of the princes . the highest spiritual hierarchs . In the Trinity Cathedral of Pskov Mikhail. to see the sleigh that belonged to Princess Olga . swords attributed to Prince Dovmont and Vsevolod Mstislavovich. In Bogolyubovo, near Vladimir . kept the sword of Prince Boris . In the Novgorod Sofia took care of the staff and vestments of Bishop Nikita (XII century) and Boris and Gleb Church – maces pagan God Perun, whose statue before the baptism of Novgorod stood in Perunovo grove on the shore of the lake.Ilmen. Vestries of ancient churches have been repositories of rarities, and in fact these were the first museums in Russia. Was done then and excavations, but they were associated with Christian shrines. In Pskov in 1420 by the decision of mayors to stop Maura decided to dig up the foundations of the demolished Church of St. Blaise. The townspeople bought the yard Artemyev. demolished buildings and the first in North-West Russia the excavation obretosha the throne.
The emergence in Russia of the science of archeology belongs to the XVIII century In 1718 Peter I izdelava decree ordering to collect for the new Museum – the Cabinet of curiosities found in the ground or water. old inscriptions. old weapons, utensils and everything was very old and unusual. It was supposed to do drawings like what you find. In Siberia to collect the collection of the Kunstkamera was sent on the expedition of D. G. Messerschmidt In 1733-1734 there was another Siberian expedition (G. F. Miller, I. Gmelin G). In 1739 the historian Tatischev V. N. wrote a detailed guide to the archaeological dig. In the second half.XVIII. Russian scientists were active in archaeological excavations of ancient cities in the territory annexed by Russia black sea area and Scythian burial mounds.
Long time to the excavations belonged to the mining of things, as revealed to the antiquities as to the curiosities connected with extinct civilizations . The findings were a subject of admiration, admiration, inspiration, but did not serve for cognition of the past. The turning point came in the nineteenth century when there was an active accumulation of materials. Conducted excavations of stone age settlements . barrows of the bronze age and burial mounds built by the Scythians in the iron age . Had uncovered the ancient city, was first studied by barrow and city of ancient Rus. Improved methods of excavation, processing, bulk materials. It is possible to move to a specific historical observations and conclusions. Objects themselves in the hands of the researchers ceased to be silent witnesses of the past, and began to talk about it. They turned into a historical source. Then the science of archaeology became a science.
Scientists are dealing with real sources, or archaeological sites. The latter refers not only some of the gravestones. It could be a separate gem, be it a pot, a temporal ring, a knife, a village, a treasure, a burial structure, rock paintings etc., in short, the archaeological monument is any ancient object that persists in the land and sometimes in water.
The main types of settlement: sites, settlement . the city’s settlement. Parking – the remains of settlements of the stone and bronze ages, which retain traces of dwellings, flint, bronze and bone items. Eg. at the Neolithic settlements of the Black Mountain in the cave were found numerous flint arrow-heads, flakes and sherds of clay vessels, decorated with ornaments, bone awls, carved image of the head of the snake, the boomerang and even the flute. On the lakes there was pile settlements. Their remains are found during the development of peat bogs, former lakes. Here well preserved objects of wood, bone, horn. Many of the ancient city, with fortifications, but the life which was not interrupted until our days, in the category of settlements not credited (Novgorod, Pskov, Suzdal, Pereslavl-Zalessky, etc.).
Settlement – unfortified settlements. With regard to the times of Ancient Russia, must be considered as the remains of villages and farms. Information about the many villages of the XIV-XVI centuries have kept pistsovye books . About the abundance of these monuments, which are almost not detected, evidenced by the fact that at the specified time, the village in the Central belt and the North-West of Russia were located every 2-3 miles and even in swamps. With rural and urban settlements are associated with treasures left by the inhabitants in time of danger. Many clades (e.g. in Ryazan) date to the Horde yoke . Known hoards of Arab coins of the VIII-X centuries came to Russia in exchange for furs.
The funerary monuments are in the form of stone and earth mounds (barrows), clay graves, stone structures (dolmens in the Caucasus). This is a very valuable historical source. In the graves of the things, as a rule, well preserved. The nature of the actions performed during the burial (kindling the fire, sprinkling the dead with ochre, the stacking order of things, etc.) it is possible to reconstruct the funeral rites and even the way people think about the world around them. Material sources are stored in most cases in the cultural layer, which is the result of human activity in its habitat. In the encampments and the villages it can reach several centimeters, and in the cities – 8-9 m (Moscow, Novgorod). The preservation of strata, in particular residues of organic origin (wood, fabric, bone), in some cases, contributes to the saturation of the layer with moisture. In Novgorod was found even bitten Apple X V. Cultural layer compared to the archive and storage of antiquities.
Archaeological science in Russia has come a long way in its development from the late nineteenth century to the present time, perfecting techniques and excavation methods, analytical processing of extracted materials. Studied thousands of monuments, restored many forgotten pages of Russian history. Now scientists are working on compiling the collection of archaeological monuments of the country. About my findings they tell in the Yearbook of the Archaeological discoveries .