Archaeological finds

In the interfluve of the don and the Dnieper, were found more than two hundred Sarmatian burials. They can be divided into several groups according to the different tribes, which are not always clearly distinguishable. Several burials of this period have been found in the area between the Don and Donets. Ceramics is similar to ceramics of the Prokhorov culture, as only a bronze mirror found in a burial on the Bottom. However, the skeletons in these graves lie the head to the West, which does not coincide with prohorovskom rite. This is probably due to the fact that the alien belonging of the Prokhorov culture, mixed with the local Scythian and Sarmatian tribes. Graves environments gesamtschule period, atributiruemy Roxolana, were excavated to the North-West of the sea of Azov, between the lower course of the Dnieper and of the Breast. The earliest of them dates back to the end of the second century BC but the majority can be dated to the first century BC and I century ad On the rite and inventory they are almost identical to the graves of the peoples of the Prokhorov culture in the district of Saratov. We can assume that the people buried in these mounds, moved there from their homeland, located in the lower reaches of the Volga.

For some time they clung to their ancient culture, customs and traditions, though where they came from, these customs change came others. On the same cemetery there are several graves, exactly the same which existed on the Volga in the previous period, including the “diagonal” type, though bolshinstvosvoih narrow pit with a niche. In most cases, the bodies were placed head to the South. The funerary inventory is exactly the same and gear is a lightly armed horse Archer: iron sword, small iron arrowheads, quivers of birch bark, etc. Only ceramic was different and had a lot in common with ceramics of local manufacture, was found in the late Scythian settlements on the Dnieper. Another group of burial mounds of this period was excavated in the lower reaches of the Dniester near Tiraspol. Burial of the catacomb type mainly and in construction and the burial inventory burial correspond to the lower reaches of the Dnieper late Scythian period.

They are dated from IV to II century BC, People buried in them, may be the descendants of the early Sarmatian, probably, branches of the “Royal Sarmatians”, evicted from their own territory in the lower reaches of the Dnieper in the end of V century BC, But it is more likely that they belonged to a branch of Scytho-Sarmatians, who by the end of III century BC. were forced to retreat under the pressure of invading their territory roxolans. However, they have preserved their ancient culture and funeral rites, adding to them only a small part of the elements characteristic of later periods. Thus, this group can be considered a surviving branch of sredneaziatskogo period. In favor of this view is evidenced by the fact that most of the burials belong to the II century BC, Judging by the presence of the burials, the group persisted until the first century BC and therefore can be identified with the iazyges, whom ancient writers prevented in this area at the time.

Finally, mention should be made of gold and silver gilt horse harness and falerah in the form of disks, are covered with geometrical and zoomorphic patterns, resembling Assyrian or Greek style, but at the same time closely related to Indo-European art. They were found at nine locations, mainly in the southern Sarmatian territory West of the don and in the North-West Caucasus. However, one of the places — Tobolsk on the Irtysh river, in the Eastern Urals, is located outside of this area, and two large treasure found in the areas located to the West of it: one of them, excavated in the South-East of Transylvania, contains fourteen of Falera and the other, on the Danube in Bulgaria, six of their samples. Falery found in the Northern black sea coast were probably the products of these Panticapaeum silver – and gold Smiths. Decorative style in which they performed, suggests that their appearance in the Northern black sea coast was in varying degrees connected with the arrival in Crimea in the late II century BC the Pontic army under Diophantus and the wars of Mithridates in the first half of I century BC the Territory in which were found nearly all falery in the Northern black sea region, was then under the rule of Sirakov and roxolans — tribes involved in the war against Diophantine and/or in the conquest of Mithridates of Bosporus.

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