Using the latest techniques of DNA analysis by German scientists plan to put an end to many years of debates concerning the emergence of modern anthropological type in Europe. Experts from the Leipzig Institute of evolutionary anthropology max Planck decoded the DNA of the remains of ancient man found during excavations in the Voronezh region. The resulting code genetics compared the DNA of Europeans and found a lot in common, so there is serious reason to believe that modern man came to the territory of modern Europe from the territory of the Russian plain, and the pre-routed the trail of settlement of Homo sapiens will now have to adjust.
That the attention of German specialists was attracted by the remains found near the village of Kostenki Voronezh region, is not surprising. It is in this area contains a large number of sites of the upper Palaeolithic, some of which relates to the period when Neanderthals were completely replaced by modern humans. Finds made in the Voronezh region have puzzled archeologists. Thus, radiocarbon analysis was found there in 2001, the statues have proven that art in Europe appeared 10 thousand years earlier than was thought. That is exactly the inhabitants of the village of Kostenki first in Europe began to imitate the human. And the bones of a man found in the burial of Markina Gora in 1954, are the most ancient remains of Homo sapiens in Eastern Europe. Their age – about 30 thousand years exceeds the age of other finds made in Spain, Italy and France. Reconstruction of the shape of the human skull made by the archaeologist and anthropologist Mikhail Gerasimov, bypassed all world history textbooks and left no doubt that Homo sapiens came into Europe from outside. “Approximately 35-40 thousand years ago the territory of modern Europe was inhabited by Neanderthals, says the candidate of historical Sciences, head of the expedition Kostenkovski Andrey Sinitsyn, and already 30 thousand years ago they were replaced by modern humans. Such a dramatic evolutionary leap is impossible, and so people came from outside”. Man discovered by archaeologists in Kostyonki, puny is the complete opposite of Neanderthals and really could be one of the first settlers in Europe.
The fact that the birthplace of Homo sapiens was Africa, modern science almost doesn’t dispute it. It has been proved that people of the modern type appeared there. But, the final say in what route he came to Europe, yet reliably could. It is considered that on the territory of Europe from Africa Homo sapiens came through the middle East and the Bosphorus from the territory of present-day Turkey to Bulgaria and then to Central and Western Europe and much later moved to the East. In the West the same and any European race. Recent studies on the territory of the village of Kostenki this concept is subjected to significant changes.
A few years ago attention to this discrepancy drew American John Hoffecker from the University of Colorado who worked on the excavation together with the Russian archaeologists. He published an article in Science magazine, where he pointed out that some cultural layers kostyonok a few thousand years older than was considered and put forward the theory that the European promoagro was on the territory of the Voronezh region – that is, the newcomers first settled in the middle reaches of the don, and then went to conquer Europe.
A new Chapter in the history of the settlement of ancient people on the territory of Europe the experts of the Institute for evolutionary anthropology max Planck added almost on the eve of the new year – they completed a comparative analysis of the DNA of the remains with Markina mountains with the genetic code of the modern person. To study such an ancient biomaterial scientists tried before, but the purity of the experiment prevented a lot of errors due to the fact that ancient DNA could be mixed with the DNA of modern people who has participated in excavations and working with the findings. A team of German scientists led by Professor Svante Paabo used the technology of polymerase chain reaction. It replicates fragments of genetic material, generating thousands to millions of copies of the same sequence. In this case, to be copied, the fragments must be of good quality. Samples of ancient DNA can not boast of neither quantity nor quality, which can be detected by this technology – they are either not copied or copied with errors, and can easily calculate among multiple clones of high-quality modern DNA. Another feature of ancient DNA, which drew the attention of genetics, was the presence of the partial changes in the genetic sequence at the edges of the molecules. Characteristic also break molecules at certain parts of the threads. All this allowed to detect mitochondrial DNA of a man from the village of Kostenki, without the distraction of impurities. Study researchers were engaged. Their main task was to determine the haplogroup (genetic-genealogical group), which belonged to the individual, buried at Markina Gora. The division into haplogroups allows to determine the affiliation to a certain race, ethnicity. Scientists have found that ancient man from the village of Kostenki belonged to haplogroup U2 is one of the types of haplogroup U, widespread in Europe. But because I have a theory that the expansion into Europe began with the Russian plain. The inhabitants of the village of Kostenki, which had quite high at that time culture was able to conquer this part of the continent and displace the Neanderthals. That’s just what could happen next is unclear. The fact that modern Europeans are most common haplogroup H. it is the man, whose remains were found in the Italian cave Paglicci. But those remains were from a later period of history. According to one version, the aliens from the Russian plain has prepared the base for other branches of the genus Homo sapiens, but were subsequently ousted by them.
Russian scientists cautious. “The main thing that did not work so that we put all hopes on genetics, and then our expectations are not met, – said Andrey Sinitsyn. – While this is just one more new method which will allow us to learn more about what happened in the past to make some predictions for the future.”
The fact is that in the coming years, geneticists and anthropologists are going to analyze many important discoveries of human remains made in Europe. Then you can accurately talk about the directions of migration, and the reasons why the migrant Homo sapiens supplanted the Neanderthals. They, incidentally, were the pinnacle of evolution, and it seemed that no one could overhear. And suddenly we relaxed in the role, we think, the most intelligent beings we skip the appearance of new competing species? In this case the experience of the past can be useful to us.