Evidence of the first people in the Arctic were discovered during the excavation of a mammoth Jenny.
Archeological evidence of the spread of humans into Northern Eurasia to 40 thousand years ago are extremely rare in Western Siberia similar findings are North of 57 degrees North latitude. In other regions of the first people in the Arctic did not appear earlier 35-30 thousand years ago. A group of Russian researchers conducted an excavation of mammoth remains Dating back to 45 thousand years before present. time, research which expands the boundaries of the proposed area of distribution of primitive people to 72 degrees North latitude.
Evidence of human settlements in the Arctic before the Last glacial maximum (the last ice age – about 26 thousand years ago) are extremely rare. Before the opening of the human sites in the Mammoth courier (Dating back to around 37 thousand years ago) and on the river Yana, the researchers were of the view that the territory of the Arctic region remained unsettled up to the border of the Pleistocene and the Holocene (about 11 to 12 thousand years ago). Discoveries in the last 20 years have confirmed the presence of humans in the Arctic at least since the late marine isotope stage 3 (MIS 3 to about 30 thousand years ago).
Known archeological evidence for human occupation of Northern Eurasia during the first 3 polovinkami. In Siberia this evidence is concentrated far South of the Arctic circle. Only on the territory of Northern Eurasia, there are about 15 to 20 archaeological sites from the Northern limit of 55 degrees North latitude and the fossil age of about 35-30 thousand years up to the present. time.
The distribution of the ice layer during the period of MIS 4 did not affect most of the Siberian Arctic. The environmental conditions of the interglacial period MIS 3 were generally favorable for the growth of populations of herbivores, including mammoths, in various parts of the Arctic. At the end of MIS 3 mammoths moved in freed from the ice cover of the region – the Central part of the Siberian Arctic for a long time was inhabited by mammoths, the highest peak in the growth of their population had at 44-42 thousand years up to the present. time. Thus, the mammoths provided a stable food resource for prehistoric people in the region.
In 2012, a team of Russian researchers under the guidance of the Secretary of the Committee for the study of mammoths and mammoth fauna of the Russian Academy of Sciences Alexei Tikhonov found a partial skeleton of a mammoth on the Eastern shore of the estuary of the Yenisei river, 1.8 km to the North from the Sopochnaya Maids. Unlike other recent discoveries, found the mammoth Zhenya was a remarkable well-preserved soft tissues, including the remains of a fatty hump and the penis, the damage to his skeleton is helped to identify the human presence in the region for ten thousand years earlier than anticipated by scientists before.
Using the radiocarbon method was able to determine the age of remains of the animal about 45 thousand years before present. time. On the bones of a mammoth were discovered unnatural damage to the ribs, right shoulder blade and cheekbone – obviously caused to people while hunting.
After analyzing these injuries, the researchers found that the traces left on the bones, probably the tip of an edged weapon like a spear, and unequivocal damage to the Tusk demonstrates an attempt to separate it. On the trail on the zygomatic bone it is possible to judge the impact force and strength of the implements used by primitive people, in contrast to subsequent and more acute, but fragile guns. Scientists suggest that the damage was accidental blunder, but the ultimate goal was to become the base of the trunk of the animal, as there is the greatest number of arteries – such a method still applied today in some African tribes when hunting elephants. Also striking are the marks of the cuts on the ribs: while the weapon is, apparently, just went on a tangent before reaching the final goal of internal organs, the force of the blow allowed him to pass through the skin and muscle until the bone of a mammoth. The remains of the animal also show damage after death, abandoned people. The lower jaw was obviously broken when removing language that could be used for ritual or as a delicacy by the hunters.
In addition to the mammoth Zhenya, on the territory of the East Siberian Arctic was discovered a wolf bone, dated to early MIS 3 period. The left humerus of wolf had an unusual feature, obtained, as shown by studies, as a result of injury by sharp weapons people. Found out that this discovery dates from about the same period as that of the mammoth is about 44-45 thousand years up to the present. time, which demonstrates a wide spread of people throughout the Arctic.
It is the development of hunting mammoths likely helped people to survive and to spread widely through the territory of the Northern Arctic, which led to an important shift – let them come close to Beringovuy isthmus and gave the opportunity to move to the New world before the last ice age.