Excavations of ancient cities in Iran can change the history of modern civilization
The middle East could become the second if not the main, the cradle of modern civilization. At the meeting in Italy the conference, the archaeologists came to the conclusion that civilization was born in a very unusual place — in Iran, far from the fertile valleys of Mesopotamia.
New discoveries during excavations in the Middle East has shaken the archaeological world and has forced scholars to reconsider the history of modern civilization. Until now, archaeologists believed that modern civilization originated in Mesopotamia, within the fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates, giving enough resources for the development of complex society. And then, during the third Millennium BC, social structures, wealth and technologies of this society slowly spread along the coast of the Nile and later along the banks of the Indus and Ganges.
New finds of settlements can shake the traditional history of the ancient world to its very foundations, reports of archaeological Science conference in Ravenna, Italy. “Archaeologists do not allow the possibility of the existence at an early stage of development of a society of such large settlements at a distance from major rivers flowing into the ocean. Earlier nobody knew about these cities,” — said the journalist of the Science Andrulonis, who described the findings of scientists in the third the August issue of the magazine.
Most archaeologists struck the ancient burial complex Matot Abad, located South Jiroft. He appeared out of the ground after the floods in 2000 in the Iranian province of Kerman. The locals here have flooded the market with various products of the ancient craftsmen.
Scientists traced the source of these unique and very interesting works and found there, according to Lawler, “a vast lunar landscape with many craters, created by the plunderers of antiquities”.
Archaeologists began excavations two surrounding hills and found a major city that could compete with his contemporary — the city of Ur in Mesopotamia.
The inhabitants of the city traded with the inhabitants of the coast of the Indus, Mesopotamia, North and South. According to Carl Lamberg-karlovsky of Harvard University, found objects date back to roughly 4000 BC It means that the city was not flourishing of Mesopotamia, but became the cradle of a long-evolved ancient civilization.
Earlier in Kerman province (in the territory of the modern city of BAM), Iranian archeologists have found the remains of the city of VI century BC And the French scientists who conducted geophysical surveys in this area found ten archaeological layers. And, accordingly, concluded that in different periods of time, there existed several successive civilizations.
The oldest of them and created a settlement in the vicinity Jiroft spread from the Eastern border of Iran to the Iran-Pakistan border on the West and North from the Russian steppes in the South through the Persian Gulf to the territory of the Arabian Peninsula.
In the mid to late third Millennium BC, the traces of cultural revival is seen in many cities of the region, as evidenced by the refined selection of precious materials brought from remote regions and processed by the ancient masters. “People from this region are highly valued Afghan lapis lazuli, Pakistan copper, gold and silver, says Lawler. They bought raw materials that are then used by the artisans, creating works in his own style”. The stylistic differences articles talking about the individuality of each community, which can be compared with the city-States of ancient Greece. Neither in that, nor in other case settlements were not satellites of any major city.
“They interacted with each other, but each possessed its own vibrant culture, developing their own styles in ceramics, painting, and perhaps his own writing,” reports the findings of archaeologists correspondent Science.
Perhaps the biggest dispute at the conference in Italy arose from the possibility of opening a new writing system. In the center of the scandal were three clay tablets, which was found by a local peasant. As well as others subsequently discovered by archaeologists. Are visible on all samples unique, full of complex characters writing. Scepticism about the value of this writing is dictated by the doubt in the age of tablets, which date, according to some, 2.5 thousand years BC.
Further excavations will show how important a role in human history played civilization, traces of which are looking for archaeologists in the Middle East.