The first people

Geologists decided the beginning of the Quaternary period from the appearance of the first fossil remains of primitive people. But there is a major problem: paleontologists continue to find more ancient traces of their existence. Thus, the beginning of the Quaternary period extended farther, which inevitably leads to a new question: whether found fossil remains of the man or the APE-like man?

The first people — who are they?

Nowadays scientists unanimously believe that the first people could be considered not monkeys, and almost people — the Australians. These two-legged creatures, whose remains were first found in 1920 in South Africa, taking us to distant times. Here the footprints date back 3.5 million years ago, where the skeleton has an age of 3.1 million years. There are findings, which is indicative of an even more distant past: 5, b even and 7 million years ago. It seems that these humanoid creatures lived only in Africa. Some of them, undoubtedly, were the ancestors of the first true man — Noto of Gains, which appeared a little over 2 million years ago, and now for him almost immediately followed by Homo erectus. The first type lasted about a million years. The second, which is also called Pithecanthropus, was a real wanderer. It leinahtan almost everywhere in the Old World. The most ancient of them have an age of 150 thousand years. But only some 100 thousand years ago in Europe, a more developed person, possessing even the rudiments of culture: Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, or as often say, “Neanderthal”. He disappeared from the face of the Earth about 35 thousand years ago, but our direct ancestor, Noto was his contemporary. Recently in a cave on mount Qafzeh, in Israel, paleontologists discovered fossil remains of this ancient “modern” man. Their age – about 90 thousand years. Thus, the man was much older than scientists thought until now. Continue reading

Archaeologists have unearthed the largest Indian settlement

The settlement of the 16th century, discovered on the North shore of Ontario, in his days was a major economic and cultural center. This conclusion was made by canadian researchers after nine years of study of this archaeological monument.

Ron Williams of the University of Toronto said that this settlement of Indians was in those days the largest. The archaeologists who first saw excavated a site with your own eyes, surprised by his size.

Mantle the settlement settlement is one of the Indian tribes – the Hurons. Archaeologists have discovered this monument in 2003 on the territory of Whitchurch-Stouffville near Toronto. The city is surrounded by a triple palisade. It formed in various areas and includes many so-called archeologists “long houses” — long, narrow houses with single room.

These homes were built from the most durable wood of cedar and maple. The average width of these structures was 6 m and their length varied in the range of 12-49 m Roof, height of 6 m, was covered with elm bark or cedar. In total, the archaeologists found 98 buildings, but at the peak of development of the settlement it was no more than 55 homes. This is because of the buildings was based on an older demolished structures. On discovered in the ancient settlement of ostankova wood scientists concluded that the Indians used an effective fire suppression system that allowed timely eliminate fire hazards.

In the times of prosperity of this settlement there were approximately 1500-1800 people. Scientists estimate that the city needed a 7 thousand deer skins annually. Hunting grounds, stretching for 40 km around the settlement, in full measure met the demand. Continue reading

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