Reconstruction the General form of the first humans
Homo habilis (Homo habilis) – for the first time the remains of this ancient human found in Olduvai Faces the 29-year excavation. It was just the teeth. In 1965, the son of Leakey, Jonathan, the calcaneus, the clavicle and a fragment of the skull of a boy of 11-12 years. Excavations revealed the all-new bones of his skeleton. Leakey called the new creature presentantion (i.e. the ancestor of Zinjanthropus). His remains were found in a deeper layer than India. He is at least several hundred thousand years of ancient India. Expert anatomists, examining the bones prezyndzhantropa said: he’s not an ancestor, but rather a descendant. Indeed, vertebra, phalanges, fragments of a skull, leg bone – it was substantially more developed than Zinj. He had no crest on the skull. The preserved jaw with 13 teeth were more like human than India. Zinjanthropus volume of the skull was 520 cm 3. and presence – 680 cm 3. It was not clear: pressing was ancient India, and by building closer to us.
Pressing was someone killed. In his skull with a gaping big hole. Found 5 phalanges of the foot, bones of the left foot, the heel and the ankle bone. It was clear that presing walked on straight legs, like a man. But the most interesting hand. Despite the massiveness and a certain curved fingers, it was more like a human than a monkey’s hand. The experts,having studied the bones of presence, came to the conclusion that the owner could use the weapon! So he made the Oldowan tools, and not Zinj? Apparently, Yes. Leakey, Tobias and Naur decided to give it a new name.. in lat. Homo habilis.
The tools did Homo habilis, almost all were quartz and the quartz in the Parking places of these people did things like that. They brought him the closest 3 km away And some 15 km! It argued that CH. really was a man. He picked up a stone for their guns. None of the animals not only selects raw materials for their guns, but generally does not cleave the stone to make it sharp, to turn into a weapon. Scientists have conducted a series of studies and concluded that the brush Hours. was able to work. She possessed the power grip more power. No monkeys no such abilities.
So the first man was found. It H. do. His age-around 2 million years.
Of course, open Faces also caused a first wave of mistrust. And man does H have? And not monkey does it, deftly “pretending” person? Leakey invited all doubters to Africa. And scientists were driving. More than 150 expeditions have been organized to verify the discoveries of the Leakey. OK. 1500 scientists and their assistants have visited in Africa. They not only confirmed the open Faces, but also found a lot. However, it is not clear who is the ancestor of the Hours. They could be Zinj, but he lived later than “skilled” or at least simultaneously with it. With the “baby” of the Taung and its relatives was also not clear.
In Olduvai have found the most ancient tools and ancient human remains, with not one, but several. If Leakey was the custom of each “ancestor”, the remains of which were found during the excavation, to give the name. The oldest (from which only the crowns of the teeth 2) was named johnny, the second named Cindy. Remained more – lower jaw and teeth, bits of the upper jaw and part of skull. The third George – we have only teeth and small pieces of skull. Fourth – Twiggy-was represented by a crushed skull and seven teeth. And these meager remains are not always preserved. For example, George had a particularly sad story. His remains were found late in the evening. Had to leave delicate work to extract, of the skull the next day. At night Maasai drove through the gorge a flock. The cattle trampled the remains of George to small pieces, many of which were lost forever. Twiggy was also flattened, but not cattle, and ruthless pressure of the rock. So she got the name from a flat-chested English women of those days. Despite the fact that all the skulls were of the pieces, thought they seem to be bigger than the skull cousins “baby” from Taung (“baby” called now by Australopithecus Africanus).
Scientist Tobias, despite the small pieces of the skull, managed to calculate its volume at 624 cm-3. It was on 200 cm 3 more than the “baby”. The volume of the skull once more, then decided Leakey, of all 3 Gemini-Yes (hominids is people, hominoid or anthropoids – apes) from Olduvai are more developed than Australopithecus.
The famous English anthropologist considered the Case that a person begins with a cranial capacity of 750 cm 3. Le Gros Clark (even more famous anthropologist than the Case) argued that the human can be considered as the capacity of the skull in 700 cm 3. but I noticed that it is impossible to determine the type of one particular symptom. An important role along with the skull and teeth should be in the form of hands, hands, feet, soles, pelvic bones, which you can find out if the gait is straight, like we have, or hominids walked like apes. However, fossils were often extremely poor. Therefore, the main characteristics of a person considered the shape and size of the skull, jaw and teeth.
Le Gros Clark first clearly noticed that if you compare the teeth, the Australopithecines already not monkeys, but it’s not. The teeth of Australopithecus were very kind, as well as the skull. Volume – 430-550 cm 3. He was more than monkey, and less than that of Pithecanthropus. Thus, the skull and teeth of the Australopithecus was a transitional link from APE to man, and to person he was closer.
And Hours. who was? An australopithecine or human?
“Sure, man, said Leakey, Tobias and Napur.- His brain was larger than the Australopithecines. The shape of the skull was more human than Australopithecus. His teeth were also more human. The skeleton of it .very close to the modern man.” “Definitely no, said the majority of critics.- Calculations of Tobias (642 cm 3 ) questionable, because the skulls were broken or incomplete and they were few in number. The similarity in the teeth is also not convincing. Pieces of the skeleton “skilled” enough to judge its full structure.”
Of skeleton the Faces of the critics said is true. The entire skeleton has not yet happened. So talking about it early. However, in regarding the teeth well-known specialist D. T. Robinson stated that he did not see significant differences between the teeth of Australopithecus and H. in. Agreed with him and Le Gros Clark.
The first skull was silent. Then the largest anthropologist Ralph Holloway of Columbia University examined Cindy, George and Twiggy and agreed with Tobias. Their skulls more than the “baby” of the Taung. Soon in S. Kenya was found almost entire skull Including. The volume of his brain was larger than that of the Trinity from Olduvai.
However, the volume of the skull and now people unequally. In modern man it ranges on average from 1000 to 1800 cm 3. This exceeds the dimensions of the skull of Pithecanthropus (from 700 to 1250 cm 3 ). And the volume of the skull Including. overrides the amount of Pithecanthropus. Recent measurements of all the findings showed that the volume of the brain Including. ranges from 500 to 800 cm 3.