The most important archaeological discoveries of this year
We present to Your attention the most important and significant archaeological discoveries of 2007, according to the American Institute of archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America). In 2007 the world was made many archaeological discoveries, the most important of them is also included and archaeological discoveries in the Americas, including :
New Dating sites Clovis
The new data of radiocarbon analysis remain contradictory regarding the settling of the Americas. The debates on this subject do not cease in 2007. Clarifying amendments to this event invited researchers of ancient sites Clovis. These sites of ancient Americans, most represented in archaeological material and constitutes a fertile field for archaeological activity. Parking Clovis testified that the first immigrants of the New world were hunters of large animals. Researched artifacts of the Clovis culture Michael waters, Director of the Center for the study of the first Americans and Thomas Stafford research lab Stafford in Colorado. Using modern methods and equipment (giving more accurate results than previous, less accurate methods), they clarified the Dating of the resettlement of people on americancommunity, examined more than twenty sites of ancient people of Clovis culture. All Parking spaces now date from the period commencing 13 050 years ago and ended 12 800 years ago. Most archaeologists still believe the Clovis people inhabited North America 13 300 years ago and lived at least 500 years.
In the waters and Stafford, based on radiocarbon data, reduced the transmission period of the Clovis culture to 250 years and think that this is too small a period for the settlement of hunter-gatherers in the Americas. Instead, they argue that such a narrow time period reflects the spread of Clovis technology and their distinctive arrowheads with a trough chipped by the population that existed in the territories. But in a letter to the scientific community on behalf of more than 12 eminent archaeologists, including those who drew attention to the existence of golovskoy culture, advocated the position that, in theory, Waters and Stafford there is no basis for the assertion of a more rapid dissemination of technology on the continent than the people themselves. What’s really needed, says the letter is a more in-depth of all Dating of Paleolithic sites in the Americas.
“W e will gladly analyze on the date of any proposed any Parking Clovis, says waters, But the theory that the Clovis culture was the first [on the continent] devoid of common sense. There is no method for such a quick settlement on two continents, with the exception, of course, time machine”.
The earliest pumpkin seeds, Peru
And reologicheskie a 2007 study in Peru has provided additional evidence that agriculture in the New World appeared soon after it originated in the Old World. As reported by Tom Dillehay from Vanderbilt University – the seeds of pumpkins confirm this. During the excavations of dwellings in the valley of Nanak in the North of the Andes have been found also remnants of other plants, husk of groundnuts, corn, quinoa and bolls of cotton; but were also found stone hoes, grinding stones, plots for seeding and small irrigation channels. Using accelerated mass spectrometry team Dillehay have established the Dating for the finds – from 6 000 to 10 000 years, and the seeds of pumpkins proved to be the oldest ever found. Similar evidence for other kinds of fruits of the Cucurbitaceae family in the New World were found in Mexico and Ecuador.
The other side of the world the domestication of rye, wheat and barley happened 12 000 – 10 000 years ago that helped to mark the transition from nomadic lifestyle to sedentary agriculture, which led to the formation of more complex societies. The cultivation of plants probably played a similar major role in the valley and Nanoc. Several thousand years ago people settled in one place, began to cultivate plants, to provide water supply and build the ritual of the mound – to take the first steps to appeared then more advanced Andean cultures. According to Dillehay “not only people cultivated wild plants, but also plants in some way cultivated people.”
Solar Observatory in Chankillo, Peru
And van Gezzi from the Peruvian National Institute of Culture and Cleve raggles the University of Leicester have found that this architectural structure consisting of 13 towers of Chankillo, built a culture, which still has no name, is almost exactly consistent with the go solar at sunrise and sunset throughout the year. For example, on the day of 15 December solstice the sun rises directly over the South tower, when viewed from the West. A wooden lintel, inserted in the tower, dates back to around 300 BC.
About sliianie sun stroke was designed to help builders Chankillo to determine the time of planting their crops. But the tower also probably intended to Express “mystical kinship with the sun” of the rulers and their ability to influence the movement of the sun. “If you have to measure and track the seasons, there is no need for such large facilities, said Gizzi, the Idea of these structures was the transfer of political and ideological messages about the close relationship of the ruler with the sun.” A huge round “fortress” near the towers could also play a role in such demonstrations.
Polynesian chickens in Chile
Scientists long assumed that in the New world, chickens were first imported by the Spaniards, and horses, pigs and cattle. However, the conducted radiocarbon Dating and DNA analysis of chicken bones found during archaeological excavations in Chile, suggests that the first chickens were imported on the West coast of South America on ocean-going canoes from Polynesia, that is, before the European “age of discovery”.
M international team with bioarchaeologist Alice storey from the University of Auckland has made an amazing discovery, after analyzing recently discovered in Chilean archaeological zone El Arenal (village Mapuche, who lived on the southern edge of the Inca Empire between 1000 and 1500 ad) on a chicken bone.
To the team of archaeologists found that the DNA sequence similar to those of chickens whose remains were discovered in the archaeological zones of the Islands of Polynesia, Tonga and American Samoa. Radiocarbon analysis revealed that chicken from El Arenal lived between 1321 and 1407, the years after the Polynesians settled on Easter island and other Islands of the Eastern Pacific ocean.
In 1532 Spanish Conquistador Francisco Pissarro documented the presence of chickens in Peru, where the Inca used them in religious ceremonies. “All of this testifies in favor of the fact that chickens have already been there, says storey, is Perhaps present stylized chicken and iconography, and we didn’t recognize and had no idea that it’s there. I am passionate about the expectation of what [archaeologists] are going to do with this information”.