These findings have changed the view of humanity

Archaeology is the science that helps to recreate the history of mankind by obtaining material evidence of the past. Sometimes the individual finds allow us to learn new, brand unknown, historical facts, and sometimes overturn previously entrenched attitudes. Here is a list of such discoveries made recently.

Stone corrals

Scientists have long wondered why in the deserts of the Middle East built so many stone walls. Some of them even more than 5000 years. Their purpose until recently it was not clear, and researchers have dubbed them “desert kites”.

Only recently experts have found that such stone structures have always been built exclusively along the migration routes of animals. So there was an assumption that they served as nothing more than a shelter for cattle that were sent for slaughter.

Cancer existed thousands of years ago

Quite a long time it was common to think that ancient people didn’t have cancer. Cancer supposedly provoke bad environmental situation, unhealthy diet, stress, radiation and so on, which in ancient times was not.

However, this is apparently a myth.Recently on the territory of the Sudan have found a coffin with the remains of men aged 25-35 years. This man lived about 3000 years ago. He observed extensive damage to the skeleton due to the metastases that had spread throughout his body.

According to the authors of the discovery, it is quite important, as it allows to trace the evolution of oncological diseases and to gain ideas about the presence of carcinogens in the ancient world.

In the Middle ages people ate raspberries and used toilet paper

Danish archaeologists have found near the town of Odense on the old wooden barrels with a partially fossilized human excrement. Prior to this, scientists have known that such capacity was used for transportation of perishable goods, but in this case they obviously were used as latrines. By the way, came from the barrels of the appropriate “flavor”…

The composition of fossilized feces was allowed to establish, what kind of food most often consumed by local residents in the Middle ages. So, popular product they had raspberries.

Incidentally, in those days, people used some sort of toilet paper. It consisted of pieces of skin, of moss and other soft materials.

The native Americans were migrants from Siberia

In an underground Mexican cave was found the skeleton of a girl, which paleontologists have named Naya. This is the earliest date the human remains found on the territory of the American continent — they 13 000 years.

Traditionally it was believed that tribes of native Americans (i.e. American Indians) migrated from Siberia. However, although the structure of the skull Naya was identical to the structure of paleoamerican skulls, teeth DNA rather correspond to the modern Indians. This suggests that migrants from Siberia and the “new” Indians are completely different populations, from the very beginning existed independently from each other.

The Irish immigrants from Russia?

But the ancient inhabitants of the emerald Isle, it seems, and in fact was our compatriots. It showed the DNA of four Irish women who lived on the island of 5.2 thousand years ago, and three men who lived in a later era, about 4 thousand years ago. It turned out that they inherited a part of its genome from representatives of the so-called yamnaya culture. living in the black sea and Caspian steppes.

In the course of research conducted by Dan Bradley from Trinity College in Dublin (Ireland) and his colleagues, it became clear that 5 thousand years ago the island was inhabited by migrants from the Middle East. They had swarthy skin, dark hair and eyes. But then they were replaced by “newcomers” from the black sea and Caspian regions. They had blue eyes, blond and red hair and much more like the modern Irish…

They brought with them “Irish” version of the male Y-chromosome and an unusual mutation in the gene C282Y, which contributes to the development of hemochromatosis is a disease associated with disorders in the withdrawal of iron from the body, so typical in modern Irish.

“In the bronze age Europe was overflowed by a wave of genomic changes, which took place along its entire length, from the Pontic steppes by the Black sea and to the West of island, commented Bradley. — High level of these changes in Ireland forces us to think about other changes, in particular, on the appearance in the island language, which served as the ancestor for the Western Celtic languages.”

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